Evo posto mi niko nije odgovorio na moje pitanje, ja sam se potrudila sama da nadjem nesto zanimljivo o brusnici.
Nasla sam i zanimljiv sajt, koga zanima moze sve da procita.
Stupila sam i u kontakt sa jednim covekom iz Slovenije, zaista mi je brzo odgovorio. Preporucio mi je da je za nase podneblje najbolja evropska brusnica, rasad kosta 4,6 evra.
Nadam se da sam nekom pomogla koga zanima brusnica.
Brusnica je vrsta bobičastog voća podrijetlom iz Sjeverne Amerike, tj. plod zimzelenog grma. Prvi uzgoj ove biljke započeo je već 1816. godine, na područjima gdje je brusnica rasla samoniklo. Tijekom lipnja i srpnja ta područja prekrivena su ružičastim cvjetovima i tamno crvenim plodovima brusnice. Ljekovita svojstva i način uzgoja čine brusnicu doista jedinstvenom biljkom.
Raste na pješčanim, suhim i tresetnim terenima gorskih (većinom crnogoričnih) šuma. To je niski, trajno zeleni grm sa čvorastim, okruglim stabljikama, te kožnatim, jajolikim, tamnozelenim i sjajnim listovima, na naličju točkastim, i malo zavinutim prema dolje. Cvijet je bijel ili ružičast, postavljen na vršcima stabljike u punašnim, visećim grozdićima. Plod čine koraljno crvene i kiselkaste bobice, nalik borovnici, koje zahvaljujući većoj količini vitamina C u svom sastavu imaju kiselkasti okus.
Brusnicu su u davnim vremenima koristili starosjedioci Amerike kao lijek za mnoge bolesti, između ostaloga i za upalu mokraćnih putova. Tradicionalno, uz puricu i druga jela, Amerikanci tim bobicama proslavljaju Dan zahvalnosti i Božić.
Ovaj se dragocjeni plod može koristiti u svježem obliku, čuvati smrzavanjem ili sušenjem, a u posljednjem desetljeću popularan je i sok od brusnica. Kao i od borovnice, i od brusnice se može praviti ljekovito vino. Osim toga, od brusnica možemo pripremati i različite umake i ukusna jela.
Brusnice su, nutricionistički gledano, posebni plodovi, jer su bogati vitaminima, mineralima i drugim hranjivim sastojcima (vitamin A, vitamin C, kalij, biljna vlakna), kao i brojnim bioflavonoidima (npr. quercetin) koji imaju snažno antioksidativno djelovanje. Antioksidanti sprječavaju rast stanica raka, njihovo metastaziranje, a pomažu i pri prevenciji određenih čimbenika koji potiču nastanak kardiovaskularnih bolesti. Hipurična kiselina, koja se također nalazi u brusnicama, predstavlja prirodni antibiotik, tako da se brusnicama pridodaju ne samo antibakterijska, već i antifungalna (protiv gljivica) svojstva. Antocijanini i proantocijanidi iz brusnica, osim antikancerogenog djelovanja, pomažu i pri obnovi stanica koje su odgovorne za vid. Brusnice uz sve to, djeluju i na snižavanje glukoze u krvi, što je jako korisno za dijabetičare.
Najvažnija stanja kod kojih se preporuča svakodnevna upotreba tih izuzetnih plodova jest upala mokraćnih putova, budući da flavonoidi iz brusnica imaju posebno antibakterijsko djelovanje. Istraživanja su pokazala da sastojci iz brusnica uništavaju i Helicobacter pylori, koji je u najvećem postotku uzročnik čira na želucu. Osim toga, brusnice uništavaju i bakterije koje se nalaze u ustima, a koje inače vremenom dovode do raznih bolesti zubi i zubnog mesa.
Brusnica Ljekovito Bilje Američka Europska Sadnica
Sadnica brusnica, ljekovito bilje, Američka brusnica Vaccinium macrocarpa - Cranberry, Europska brusnica Vaccinium vitis idaea, sadnica je ljekovito bilje, plodovi brusnica su bogati različitim zaštitnim tvarima koji imaju snažnu antioksidativno djelovanje smanjuju rizik obolevanja od različitih karcinoma, kao su rak dojke i rak debelog crijeva.Sprečavaju upalu mokraćnih puteva,sprečavaju nakupljanje štetnog holesterola, sa time sprečavaju stres i ljekovito djeluju na srce, brusnica sprečava čireve na želudcu, liječi karijes na zubima, smanjuje šečer u krvi zato se preporučuje dijabetičarima, brusnica je ljekovito bilje plodovi su naravni antibiotik za mnoge bolesti. Sadnica američka i europska brusnica imaju ovu godino plodove, svako godino se urod uvečava,brusnice su uzgojene u posudama i mogu se presađivat.Upute za sadnju dobivate kod nas - Rasadnik sadnica brusnica Rast Baznik, www.rast-bs.si
BRUSNICA - Plodovi in listje naravno zdravilo !!
Brusnica je nizek zimzelen grm. Spomladi se na kratkih poganjkih razvijejo roza cvetovi, ki se oblikujejo v zelene, v septembru in oktobru ko dozorijo, zažarijo kot rdeče jagode. Iz zrelih plodov brusnic pripravljamo osvežilne napitke, razne sladice, marmelado katera se najpogosteje uporablja kot priloga k divjačinskim jedem iz listov brusnic se pripravlja zdravilni čaj. Plodovi brusnic imajo zelo širok učinek na zdravje, spoznali so njihove učinkovine že ob času osvajanja Amerike. Zreli plodovi Ameriške brusnice vsebujejo zelo veliko vitamina C, uporabljali so jo kot ljudsko zdravilo za zdravljenje vnetij sečevodov, potrjeno je da plodovi in sok prepričujejo in zavirajo razvoj E.colli=bakterije, ki je osnovna povzročiteljica vnetij sečil pri ženskah in moški populaciji .Prav tako brusnica preprečujejo vnetje dlesni in razjed na prebavilih. Brusnica vsebuje antioksidante, ki v obrambnih celicah uničujejo bakterije in glivice, saj je znano da poškodovane celice v človeškem telesu pripeljejo do sprememb in novih tvorb tudi rakastih,sestavine brusnice preprečujejo bolezni srca in nekaterih degenerativnih sprememb. Brusnica ima ( Anthocianin ) barvilo, ki daje plodovom rdečo barvo je izredno zdravilen saj zmanjšuje nastajanje LDL (slabega holesterola), preprečuje in blaži stresna stanja pri človeku, Pri sladkornih bolnikih zmanjšuje sladkor v krvi, vpliva na oči tako da izboljšuje vid. Plodove brusnic lahko hranimo v hladilniku sveže tudi več mesecev, saj jih varuje pred izsušitvijo voščena plast in naravna konzervansa benzojeve kisline in vecinin. Kot rastlina je evropska in ameriška brusnica zelo odporna rastlina tako na bolezni, kakor na nizek mraz zato z njo lahko zasadimo, skalnjake, brežine, robove poti, robnikov ali kot podrast v skupini rododendronov in ameriških borovnic, ker se brusnica razrašča prekrije in napravi zeleno preprogo njene korenine so v globini do dvajsetih centimetrov. Boleznim ni podvržena zato škropljenje ni potrebno, je primerna za ekološko pridelavo. Za svojo rast rabi kislo humusno zemljo (PH 3,5 – 5,5 ) in delno senčno lego, ki ni izpostavljena močnim poletnim pripekam. Posadimo jo lahko v balkonska korita katera naj bodo v vročem poletju na pol senčni strani. Mi v Krški vasi pri Brežicah imamo posajene sadike evropske in ameriške brusnice v kombinaciji z grmi ameriške borovnice, katere imajo sadilno jamo velikosti 60x60 cm napolnjeno s kislo substanco zemlje pH 3,5 do 5,5 pH kislosti bogato z humosom. To koristno in zdravilno rastlino kot je brusnica si lahko posadimo tudi na območjih, kjer je za druge rastline manj primerno. tako da imamo plodove pridelane doma in vedno na dosegu roke. Ameriška brusnica (Vaccinium macrocarpon – Cranberry), Evropska brusnica ( Vaccinium vitis idaea) in Ameriška borovnica ( Vaccinium corymbosum ) posajene skupaj so vidne na fotografiji. Sadika z cvetovi brusnica in borovnica so na voljo, vse o sajenju opisanih rastlin in sadike vzgojene v posodah (kontejner) dobite v Rast Krška vas pri Brežicah na tel.; 07 4959 344 , mob.:031 678 217, www.rast-bs.si
, E-mail: rast @ siol.net
How Cranberries Grow: "Cranberries 101" - An Introduction
Cranberries are a unique fruit. They can grow and survive only under a very special combination of factors. These factors include acid peat soil, an adequate fresh water supply, and a growing season that extends from April to November. Cranberries grow on low-lying vines in beds layered with sand, peat, gravel and clay. These beds are commonly known as bogs or marshes and were originally created by glacial deposits. Commercial bogs use a system of wetlands, uplands, ditches, flumes, ponds and other water bodies that provide a natural habitat for a variety of plant and animal life.
The North American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, is the fruit recognized by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) as the standard for fresh cranberries and the cranberry juice cocktail. The European variety, which is grown in parts of central Europe, Finland and Germany, is known as Vaccinium oxycoccus. This variety is a smaller fruit with anthocyanin pigment profiles similar to that of the North American variety. The European variety, however, has a different acid profile in terms of the percentages of quinic, malic and citric acid levels present. In Europe, this fruit is commonly known as lingonberry or English mossbery.
The cranberry is a Native American wetland fruit which grows on trailing vines like a strawberry. The vines thrive on the special combination of soils and water properties found in wetlands. Wetlands are nature's sponges; they store and purify water and help to maintain the water table. Cranberries grow in beds layered with sand, peat and gravel. These beds are commonly known as bogs or marshes and were originally formed as a result of glacial deposits.
In Massachusetts we call the place where cranberries grow a BOG. Natural bogs evolved from deposits left by the glaciers more than 10,000 years ago. These deposits were left in impermeable kettle holes lined with clay. The clay prevents materials from leaching into the groundwater. Rocks and other organic materials were collected by the glaciers. When the ice finally melted deposits of heavy materials were layered on top of the clay.
These kettle holes were filled with water and organic matter which created the ideal environment for cranberries. In the early 1800s Henry Hall, a veteran of the Revolutionary War who lived in Dennis Massachusetts noticed that sand blown in from nearby dunes helped vines grow faster. Today, growers spread a inch or two of sand on their bogs every three years. The sand not only helps the vines grow but also slows the growth of weeds and insects. Normally, growers do not replant each year since an undamaged cranberry vine will survive indefinitely. Some vines on Cape Cod are more than 150 years old and are still bearing fruit.
Cranberries are grown through the northern part of the United States. The major production areas are New Jersey, Massachusetts, Oregon, Washington, Wisconsin and the Candian provinces of British Columbia and Quebec. Other regions include Delaware, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Rhode Island, as well as Nova Scotia and Ontario. These regions offer the special conditions that cranberries require, including sandy soil; abundant fresh water and a dormancy period that provides enough chill hours to produce a crop the following growing season.
Cranberries 101 Continued
Seasons of the Bog: Winter | Spring | Summer | Fall
Water Use in Cranberries
How Cranberries Grow: "Cranberries 101" - Winter
The Massachusetts Growing Season...
Cranberry bogs are flooded from late December through mid- March depending on the weather, to protect the vines and buds from winter injury.
A layer of sand is applied to the cranberry bog every few years. This cultural practice is done to stimulate growth, improve drainage and control weeds, insects and fungi. Sand can be applied in several ways. With
sanding, sand is applied directly to the vines by a bog vehicle or by hand. In ice sanding, the sand is applied on the ice that forms on the winter flood. The third method is barge sanding, where sand is applied by using a barge on a flooded bog.
Equipment maintenance and Construction
Since there are fewer than 1,000 cranberry growers in North America, large companies do not manufacture farm equipment for cranberry production. Most growers use the winter months to design, build and maintain their own equipment.
Brush cutting and Tree clearing
Growers often will remove brush and trees around the perimeter of the bog to promote air movement which helps reduce frost risk and cuts down on fungal growth. Removing brush and trees that serve as alternative hosts for weeds diseases and insects also helps cut down on pesticide use.
Through continuing education workshops, growers spend many hours learning the latest environmental and production related practices that will increase the efficiency and environmental compatibility of their operations.
How Cranberries Grow: "Cranberries 101" - Spring
The Massachusetts Growing Season...
Removal of Winter Flood
As warmer weather arrives, usually mid-March, growers remove the winter flood. The vines slowly come out of dormancy and the growing season begins.
Late water (Spring flooding)
You may see a bog re-flooded between mid-April and mid-May as a cultural practice to manage insects, weeds and disease.
Water is applied through the sprinkler system to protect the cranberry bud in the spring and the fruit in the fall. This can occur anytime the temperature drops below damaging levels, usually between late evening and early morning hours.
As in your home garden, weeds in cranberry bogs must be controlled. This is done by an application of herbicides applied by mechanical means, holding late water (spring flooding) or hand pulling.
Typically, fertilizers are applied between mid-May and late August. As native wetland plants, cranberry vines require minimal nutrient supplements. When needed, fertilizers are applied in small doses by helicopter, manually, or through the sprinkler system.
Construction and Renovation of Cranberry Bogs
Many of the bogs in Southeastern Massachusetts have been in production for more than 100 years. Sometimes a bog may be replanted because: the bog may not be level, the variety is a low producer or weeds such as briar, poison ivy, or brambles have overtaken the vines. In such cases, large construction equipment is needed to move the soil, leveling the bog in preparation for planting new vines. Growers also may square off beds to increase operation efficiency. From time to time it is also necessary to upgrade or replace irrigation systems and water control structures.
How Cranberries Grow: "Cranberries 101" - Summer
The Massachusetts Growing Season...
The old rule-of-thumb is that cranberries require up to one inch of water per week during the growing season. If rainfall is inadequate, water is applied through the sprinkler system.
Weeds may appear on a cranberry bog during the summer. Workers hand pull weeds or wipe them with a manual or mechanical herbicide applicator.
Pollination is an essential part of cranberry growing. Growers utilize one or two bee hives per acre of bog during bloom, early June through mid-July, to pollinate the cranberry flowers.
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
Most growers use IPM techniques as an ecological approach to pest control. IPM includes a combination of biological, cultural, or chemical control methods. Throughout the spring and summer, IPM scouts use insect nets and sticky traps to monitor pest activity.
Insecticides and fungicides may be applied during the summer months to control or prevent serious damage caused by various insects and diseases. Pesticides are only used when necessary and are applied by state certified applicators. Although occasional applications may be made by helicopter, the vast majority are made through the sprinkler system.
How Cranberries Grow: "Cranberries 101" - Fall
The Massachusetts Growing Season...
The cranberry harvest takes place once a year from mid-September through early November. There are two methods of harvesting cranberries.
harvesting involves using walk-behind machines to rake the berries off the vines into boxes or bags. Berries are removed from the bogs by either bog vehicles or helicopters. The fruit is delivered to fresh fruit receiving stations where it is graded and screened based on color and ability to bounce (soft berries will not bounce).
harvested cranberries are used to supply the fresh fruit market. These cranberries are most often used for cooking and baking.
Cranberries have pockets of air inside the fruit. Because of this, cranberries float in water, and thus, the bogs can be flooded to aid in removal of fruit from the vines. Water reels, nicknamed “egg-beaters” are used to stir up the water in the bogs. By this action, cranberries are dislodged from the vines and float to the surface of the water. Wooden or plastic “booms” are used to round up the berries, which are then lifted by conveyor or pumped into a truck to take them to the receiving station for cleaning. More than 85% of the crop is wet harvested. Wet harvested cranberries are used for juices, sauces, or as ingredients in other processed foods.
Ditches are necessary for the flooding and drainage of a bog. The network of ditches must be kept free flowing. Ditch cleaning is usually done in the spring and fall by hand or a mini-excavator. The mud piles are removed by either a bog vehicle or helicopter.
How Cranberries Grow: "Cranberries 101" - Water Use
The Massachusetts Growing Season...
The old rule-of-thumb states that cranberry vines need approximately an inch of water a week to grow. Growers use water to protect cranberries from frost and hot weather in summer. As a general rule, each acre of cranberries will use seven to ten feet of water to meet all production, harvesting and flooding needs. There are two main ways cranberry growers bring water onto the bogs – through sprinkler systems and through flooding.
Sprinkler irrigation supplements soil moisture, protects the buds from spring frosts and the berries from fall frosts and cools the plants during intense summer heat. There are two vital operations performed by sprinklers on cranberry bogs - Irrigation and Frost Protection.
Cranberries can require 0.20-0.25 inches of water per acre per day during the hottest, driest and windiest weather. The standard recommendation is for vines to receive an inch of water per week from either rain, capillary action from groundwater, irrigation or some combination of these. Best Management Practices recommend irrigating in the early morning, so as not to extend the time the plants are naturally wet. This practice also minimizes loss from evaporation, run-off and drift, which can amount to 30 percent of water that comes out of the nozzle.
Frost protection applies water to prevent damage to buds and berries when they are sensitive to temperatures below freezing. There are two times of the year when cranberry growers worry about frost – in the spring and in the fall. It is necessary to apply at least 0.10 inch of water per acre per hour to provide basic frost protection. This will protect the plants to about 24 degrees F under calm conditions.
The other practice when cranberry growers use water on the bog is flooding. Flooding is so important in cranberry cultivation that bogs where flooding is not possible are no longer considered profitable. Cranberry growers use flooding as a management tool to protect the plants from the cold, drying winds of winter, to harvest and remove fallen leaves and to control pests.
Cranberry vines may be injured or killed by severe winter weather. This injury, winterkill, is prevented by protecting the vines with a winter flood. The winter flood may be applied as early as December 1 and remains on the bog as long as winterkill conditions are present or forecasted. Generally, growers hold the flood no later than March 15.
Another flooding technique cranberry growers use is known as late water. Late water floods have been used since the 1940’s and have been used to protect the bog from spring frost and to provide some pest control. In modern cranberry production, holding late water refers to the practice of withdrawing the winter flood in March then re-flooding the bog in later April for one month.
The most widely-known use of flooding in cranberry cultivation is for harvest. Approximately 90 percent of the crop is harvested this way. Flood harvesting occurs after the berries are well colored and the flood waters have lost their summer heat. The bogs are flooded with up to one foot of water. In order to conserve water, harvest is managed so water is reused to harvest as many sections of bog as possible before the water is released from the system. Flood water is recycled in the cranberry bog system, passed from bog to bog through canals and flume holding ponds and reused, often shared by several growers.